Name:  _______________________________________________

PSY 360 – Fall 2002
Test 2

Multiple Choice:  For each question below, select the single most correct answer by circling the corresponding letter (@ 1 point).

[NOTE: Answers to the multiple choice questions can be found at the end of this test.]


1.     Your friend has been trying to toilet-train her 6 month old son, without success.  This failure is probably because her

        A.    son is male – girls toilet train faster than 6 months

        B.     son is not physically mature enough

        C.    husband needs to train their son

        D.    methods are inappropriate and should be changed.


2.     According to Sheldon, a child who is muscular in build is a(n):

        A.    endomorph                                         B.     ectomorph

        C.    mesomorph                                        D.    intellectual


3.     Research on physical development has found that

        A.    teenagers become less coordinated as puberty begins

        B.     only adolescent boys suffer from coordination problems

        C.    there is no point at which teens become consistently less coordinated

        D.    near the end of the teen years, most adolescents experience a drop in physical skills


4.     The ____________ are “soft spot” in the skull of a newborn,

        A.    proximodistals                                     C.    medullas

        B.     fontanels                                             D.    maxomorphs


5.     The newborn baby’s muscle fibers

        A.    become longer, thicker, and less watery at a fairly rate throughout childhood

        B.     are greater in number than needed, and the excess will be pruned with exercise

        C.    do not develop according to the proximodistal/cephalocaudal sequence that other body systems follow

        D.    in the limbs develop before those in the neck


6.     Which part of the brain controls attention, sleeping and waking:

        A.    medulla                                               C.    cortex

        B.     midbrain                                             D.    axon


7.     The ____________ is the convoluted gray matter that wraps around the midbrain and is involved in high-level perception, voluntary body movement, and all complex thinking and language.

        A.    medulla           B.  neuron            C.  axon               D.  cortex


8.     The age of menarche as dropped over the past generations.  This demonstrates a/an:

        A.    secondary circular reaction                  B.     secular trend

        C.    reversibility                                         D.    utilization deficiency


9.     Recent evidence has found that homosexuality

        A.    is a mental disease                              B.     has a biological basis

        C.    is learned                                            D.    runs in families


10.   The rate of teenage pregnancy in the United States is __________ in most other developed Western countries.

        A.    higher than                                          B.     about the same as

        C.    lower than                                          D.    only about 2-3% lower than


11.   In research on infant perception, a common research strategy presents an infant with some stimulus until he stops responding to it.  Then a new stimulus that differs from the first in some specific respect (e.g., color) is presented to see if the infant now responds.  This strategy involves the use of what basic process?

        A.    regression to the mean                         B.     scanning

        C.    object constancy                                 D.    habituation/dishabituation


12.   What is the relative adequacy of auditory and visual acuity in the newborn infant?

        A.    visual acuity is much better than auditory acuity

        B.     auditory acuity is much worse than visual acuity

        C.    there is no difference

        D.    auditory acuity is much better than visual acuity


13.   In comparison to an adult, newborns

        A.    hear nearly as well in the range of the human voice

        B.     have poorer hearing at all pitches

        C.    hear low sounds better

        D.    rely more on vision and less on hearing because the auditory sense is less developed


14.   The data on the infant’s ability to discriminate tastes suggests that this ability is

        A.    mostly learned                                    B.     difficult to learn

        C.    very primitive in the newborn               D.    innate


15.   Eleanor Gibson pioneered research with:

        A.    visual cliff                                            B.     visual preferences

        C.    cross-modal transfer                           D.    rod vs cone vision


16.   In the first two months, a baby’s attention is focused on:

        A.    dark/light edges                                  B.     far objects

        C.    blue or pink colors                              D.    small objects

                                                                          E.     both B & D


17.   Researchers showed babies pictures with small objects on top of large objects until they had habituated.  Later the babies looked longer at a picture of a large object on top of a small object than at a new instance of a small-over-large.  Which of the following would be a reasonable conclusion from such a study?

        A.    babies have a built-in preference for looking at large things over small things

        B.     babies respond to the patterns of arrangements of objects, not just to the specific objects

        C.    babies pay little attention to patterns, responding instead only to the specific objects

        D.    habituation wipes out infants’ ability to notice a pattern of small-over-large


18.   The finding that as babies develop, they lose the ability to distinguish unneeded sound contrasts (i.e., the sounds that are not needed in the language spoken to them) is best explained by which developmental concept?

        A.    synaptic growth and pruning                B.     social-referencing

        C.    habituation and dishabituation              D.    cross-modal transfer


19.   When little Kanisha sees her parents from a block away, she doesn’t believe they are her parents because they “are too little.”   Kanisha has not yet developed

        A.    visual acuity                                        B.     social referencing

        C.    visual accommodation                         D.    size constancy


20.   Piaget’s most central assumption was that the child is

        A.    a passive recipient of knowledge

        B.     an active participant in the development of knowledge

        C.    totally dependent on the environment

        D.    dependent on affordances from the environment


21.   According to Piaget, assimilation involves

        A.    changing the scheme as a result of new information taken in

        B.     integrating children from ethnic minorities into the community

        C.    being shaped by the environment

        D.    absorbing an event or experience in an existing scheme


22.   Research on memory in very young infants

        A.    proves that Piaget’s theory is most accurate

        B.     demonstrates that they can remember particular objects only with “reminders.”

        C.    contradicts some of Piaget’s view of the sensorimotor infant

        D.    shows that the existence of memory in infants depends on language


23.   When a child understands that objects remain the same in fundamental ways even when there are external changes in shape or arrangement, the child has acquired

        A.    centration                                           B.     egocentrism

        C.    formal operations                                D.    conservation


24.   From Piaget’s perspective, the great leap forward in concrete operations that begins between the ages of five and seven is

        A.    the resolution of the initiative versus guilt crisis and the start of the industry versus inferiority crisis

        B.     the use of symbols

        C.    the abstract, flexible, and combinatorial logic of formal operations

        D.    the child’s discover of a set of general rules or strategies for examining and interacting with the world


25.   The understanding that other people have separate desires and beliefs indicates a/an:

        A.    theory of mind                                    B.     production deficiency

        C.    innate constructivism                           D.    egocentric viewpoint

Keep this sheet - You may record your multiple-choice answers on it to compare with the answer key after the test AND you will need these questions to prepare for the final exam.

Write answers to these questions in your blue-book.


KEY TERMS & NAMES.  Select 5.  For each term, supply a precise definition including the context and a clear example.  For each name, supply the context and 2 more facts about that person's research (@ 3 points).
                        Intersensory Integration                        Monocular Cue

                        Cephalocaudal Development                Hippocampus

                        Glial Cells                                            Thalamus

                        Jane Healy                                           Empiricism

SHORT ANSWER.  Select and answer 2 (@ 6 points).


1.  List the 4 reasons for studying physical development.  Then for each reason, supply an original example (not from text nor lecture).


2.  Compare & contrast each pair by identifying a major similarity & difference:

            A) Yonas vs Riesen

            B) Kinetic Cue vs Binocular Cue

            C) Rouge Test vs Moral Sense

            D) Langlois vs Kampe


3.  Identify any 4 facts from the video ("The Mind: Development").  Then relate each fact to specific information discussed in class.


4.  Diagram the components of sensation & perception.  Then use your diagram to discuss any specific example of cross-modal transfer.


  1.  B          2.  C          3.  C          4.  B          5.  A          6.  B          7.  D
  8.  B          9.  B        10.  A        11.  D        12.  D        13.  A        14.  D
15.  A        16.  A        17.  B        18.  A        19.  D        20.  B        21.  D
22.  C        23.  D        24.  D        25.  A